As a result of the Mithradatic wars, libraries were brought from the East to Italy. Tiberius AD was a successful general and a fine imperial administrator and left the empire with secure boundaries and a healthy treasure.
Eventually, they turned from raiding to conquest, and conquered Ireland, most of England, and northern France Normandy. Other Latin writers of the period lived more conventional literary lives: the poets Virgil, Catallus, Horace, Ovid, Martial and Juvenal; the historian Livy.
Greatest artists like BrunelleschiBotticelliDa VinciMichelangeloGiottoDonatelloTitian and Raphael produced inspired works — their paintwork was more realistic-looking than had been created by Medieval artists and their marble statues rivalled and sometimes surpassed those of Classical Antiquity.
Below the senatorial class came the equites. Galileo Galileifather of modern science, physics and observational astronomy.
Women wore a stola, a long tunic tied at the bust and falling to the ankles. Long-distance maritime trade was more extensive at the time of the empire than at any time before the nineteenth century. Important thinkers of the Renaissance in Northern Europe included the Catholic humanists Desiderius Erasmusa Dutch theologian, and the English statesman and philosopher Thomas Morewho wrote the seminal work Utopia in